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Poland’s Primeval Forest Has Lost its Staunchest Defender

Obituary: Janusz Korbel

Ecologist Janusz Korbel, defender of Poland’s primeval Bialowieża Forest, passed away earlier this month. He was 69 years old. An architect and urban planner by training, Korbel was a founding member of the deep ecology movement in Poland and for the past 21 years had dedicated his life to protecting Europe’s last stretch of lowland forest in against logging and development.

Janusz KorbelPhoto by Agnieszka SadowskaKorbel believed that deep ecology could be cultural in some ways, but also held fast to the principle that nature does not need humans.

Straddling the border between Poland and Belarus Białowieża (pronounced byah-wo-vyeh-zhah) Forest is one of largest remaining parts of the immense 8,000-year-old forest that once stretched across the European Plain. Divided  between Belarus and Poland, the 580 square mile forest is a UNESCO World Heritage site and is home to myriad flora and fauna, including more than 250 bird species, 1,500 species of fungus, moose, wolves, lynx, beavers, wild boars, and the largest wild population of the European bison, the continent’s  heaviest land animal.

The Polish section of the forest (one third portion of the entire forest) includes the country’s oldest national park — Białowieża National Park.  Established first as a nature reserve in 1921, and later a national park in 1932, the park covers an area of about 153 square km (about 17 percent of the forest area on the Polish side) and is famous for its bison population and, perhaps even more, for its strictly protected 10 sq km inner zone of old growth, which has existed without much human intervention for nearly 800 years. This heart of Białowieża, called Obręb Ochronny Orłówka, is accessible to tourists only under the supervision of a guide. The 83 percent of the forest that lies outside the national park is open to selective logging. It’s this area that’s been the subject of an ongoing battle between conservationists like Korbel and local foresters.

I first met Korbel in 2005 when I was doing doctoral research in the village of Bialowieża. As a cultural anthropologist, I was interested in the ways communist and peasant pasts interact with conservation politics. Korbel drew me into his world of art, music, photography, and activism, and a wide network of friends.  He had a gentle voice and demeanor, yet he was …more

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Green Activism in Palestine

A permaculture project near Ramallah hopes to reconnect the people in this conflict-ridden region with nature

Land is key to the ongoing occupation in Palestine. Wars have been fought over territory and legal battles have spun out for decades over matters as basic as accessing a plot. Despite land being such a major issue, the human cost of occupation means that the environmental cost is forgotten not just by Western outsiders like myself, but also by Palestinians themselves.

women and kids at the nature parkPhoto by by Morgan CooperDuring family Friday's at the Mashjar, parents and children learn about nature together via various fun activities.

The destruction of olive trees has, of course, become almost a symbol of the Israel-Palestinian conflict. The cultural significance of olive branches as messages of peace add a metaphorical layer to the trials Palestinian farmers face when their income and heritage is destroyed. (Read the Journal’s 2002 report on this issue here). However, there are many other native plants and wildlife that too, are an integral part of Palestinian history and culture.

While walking in the hills around Ramallah with a group of friends recently, I ran into Saleh Totah, an activist who co-founded Mashjar Juthour, a 2.5 acre arboretum and eco-park on the Thahr al Okda hillside. Totah and his partner, Morgan Cooper, started Mashjar Juthour, which translates roughly as “the Roots Arboretum,” in 2013 as a permaculture education project seeking to re-establish the diverse range of flora that flourished in Palestine years ago, but which has been lost in conflict and in ignorance.

The project is one of many that have cropped up in Palestine in recent years, including rooftop gardens and fish farms, that hope to reconnect the people in this conflict-ridden region with their natural environment and inspire Palestinians to work towards a sustainable future for themselves and their land.

That day, and on a subsequent visit when we helped to clear stones, we heard about the different plants growing in the Mashjar: Palestinian oak with its edible acorns, orchids which are used to make the drink salep, tiny, wild peas which we ate from the pod. Many of Mashjar's plants have a dual purpose. They make the land itself rich and sustainable while also providing sustenance. Lentils, for example, are grown for food and at the same time return nitrogen to the soil for hungry trees.

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‘Animal Abuse and Harassment is a Pervasive Problem in the Wildlife Film Industry’

In Conversation with wildlife filmmaker Chris Palmer

Chris Palmer is one of the world’s foremost wildlife documentary experts. Over the course of his nearly three-decade long career in filmmaking, Palmer has spearheaded the production of more than 300 hours of original programming for prime-time television and the IMAX film industry — work that won him and his colleagues many awards, including two Emmys and an Oscar nomination (for the film Dolphins). Palmer has swum with dolphins and whales, come face-to-face with sharks and Kodiak bears, camped with wolf packs, and waded through Everglade swamps. The veteran filmmaker is president of One World One Ocean Foundation and the MacGillivray Freeman Films Educational Foundation, which produce and fund IMAX films on conservation issues.  He is also the director of the Center for Environmental Filmmaking at American University.

Chris Palmer

In his 2010 memoir, Shooting in the Wild: An Insider’s Account of Making Movies in the Animal Kingdom, Palmer revealed troubling trend toward sensationalism, extreme risk-taking, and even abuse that’s pervasive in the wildlife film business. In his latest book Confessions of a Wildlife Filmmaker, released earlier this year, Palmer returns again to the dark side of wildlife filmmaking, openly admitting that he too has been “as guilty of fabricating phony wildlife scenes” as those he now criticizes, and calls for wildlife filmmaking to move in a healthier direction.

Palmer recently took time out from his busy schedule to talk with Earth Island’s International Marine Mammal Project. We found him to be a very thoughtful critic of the film industry, describing how too many nature filmmakers conduct themselves in ways that harm wildlife, mislead viewers, or fail to promote conservation of the natural world. 

IMMP: In your new book, Confessions of a Wildlife Filmmaker, you talk about how the industry has been negligent in making nature films. Can you summarize what you see as problems?

Chris Palmer: The abuse and harassment of animals during the filming of shows has been a pervasive problem and continues to be so even now. For example, just last September, Discovery made a program about a naturalist being eaten by an anaconda. That kind of filming puts an anaconda though a significant amount of stress. Luckily, not all wildlife programs are like that at all.

The second problem is that there is a lot of …more

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Coping With Naples’ Toxic Waste Crisis

Can the Campania countryside survive the damage wreaked upon it by decades of illicit trash dumping?

In Naples, a seaside metropolis of three million in the shadow of Mt. Vesuvius, the city’s public services sometimes “forgets” to gather the trash from city dumpsters. A week passes and the waste overflows from the sides of dumpsters. Two weeks pass, and the old and weak cannot launch their trash bags to reach the height of the odorous mountains. The dumpster, sidewalk, and half the street soon vanish.

Finally, a month passes and the people, despaired by sight and smell, set the trash mountain ablaze. My fiancée, a former medical student from Sicily, races around the house slamming windows and cursing, trying to keep out the carcinogenic smoke.

Garbage bags on a street cornerPhoto by mksfca/flickrNaples has a garbage collection problem. In the past 20 years, Naples and the Campania countryside have attracted new nicknames: “Land of Poison,” “Triangle of Death,” “Land of Fires.”

In the 1600s, when Naples was experiencing its Golden Age, Goethe described the area as the “most fertile plain in the world.” French writer Stendhal once cried, “Paris and Naples, the two true capitals!” Naples was, and some argue still is, the city of art, love, and philosophy — a city that wears her pleasures in the streets.

In the past 20 years, however, Naples and the Campania countryside have attracted new nicknames: “Land of Poison,” “Triangle of Death,” “Land of Fires.” A land once fertile and revered has devolved into a place where toxic waste seeps into water sources; where black pillars of smoke from burning garbage dumps have exposed local populations to increased risk of lung carcinoma. Birth defects here are 80 percent above European averages, and researchers have found that breast cancer rates in the region were 47 percent above the national average.

Stories abound of rampant political corruption, the mafia’s involvement in the garbage business, and tens of billions of dollars of dirty money changing hands. There are even whispers of nuclear sludge being trucked in from Germany and dumped in makeshift landfills under buffalo grazing fields.

The cause of Campania region’s environmental damage and public health crisis is so disperse that it’s difficult to point fingers. There are the Italian politicians who, during northern Italy’s industrial boom in the 1980s and ’90s, looked the other way while internationally known carcinogenic chemicals were used …more

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Mass Incarceration vs. Rural Appalachia

Feds want to build a maximum-security prison on top of a former mountaintop removal mining site in eastern Kentucky

For all practical purposes the [Cumberland Plateau] has long constituted a colonial appendage of the industrial East and Middle West, rather than an integral part of the nation generally. The decades of exploitation have in large measure drained the region.
Harry M. Caudill, author, historian, lawyer, legislator, and environmentalist from Letcher County, in the coalfields of southeastern Kentucky (May 3, 1922 – November 29, 1990)

 

The United States Bureau of Prisons is trying to build a new, massive maximum-security prison in the Appalachian mountains of eastern Kentucky — and there’s a growing movement to stop it.

a strip minePhoto by Universal Pops/FlickrA mountaintop removal mine in Wise County, Virginia. The federal Bureau of Prisons wants to build a prison over a similarliy strip-mined parcel of land in neighboring Kentucky which is still being drilled for gas, and which is located amid a habitat for dozens of endangered species.

The prison industry in the US has grown in leaps and bounds in the past 20 years— a new prison was built at an average rate of one every two weeks in the ’90s, almost entirely in rural communities. As of 2002, there were already more prisoners in this country than farmers. The industry seems like an unstoppable machine, plowing forward at breakneck speed on the path that made the world’s largest prison population.

Today, about 716 of every 100,000 Americans are in prison. Prisoners in nations across the world average at 155 per 100,000 people. And in the US, Southern states rule the chart. Viewing these states as countries themselves, Kentucky ranks at lucky number seven.

“Sounds terrible…” you may be thinking, “But what does it have to do with the environment?”

Well, this seemingly impenetrable multi-billion dollar bi-partisan government-driven industry does have a weak point: it’s a well-verified ecological mess. For a 10-year period of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Prison Initiative, prison after prison that the EPA’s inspected in the Mid-Atlantic region was plagued with violations. Violations included air and water pollution, inadequate hazardous waste management and failing spill control prevention for toxic materials.

From the initial breaking ground on construction in rural and wild places to the inevitable sewage problem from operating chronically over-populated facilities — running a prison is …more

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Fossil Fuels’ Days are Numbered, Thanks in Large Part to Economics: Lester Brown

In Review: The Great Transition

Lester R. Brown is well known for his sweeping assemblages of information to illustrate world trends, economic trends, and environmental trends.  His revelations are usually sobering, if not frightening.

But along comes The Great Transition, his newest look at world trends. Today, Brown is telling a different tale. What he sees, along with his co-writers, is a rather uplifting vision:  Fossil fuels are being replaced at an increasing pace by wind and solar energy.

Lester Brown Photo courtesy of Lannan FoundationBrown says the reason solar and wind energy are growing in use
around the world has a lot to do with the economics as well.

We know, of course, that fossil fuels — coal, oil and natural gas — cause considerable environmental damage.  Smog causes or aggravates many human diseases such as lung disease and heart disease, contributing to tens of thousands of premature deaths annually. Getting fossil fuels out of the ground is dangerous and causes its own set of pollution problems: coal mine disasters, black lung disease, oil spills, chemical pollution of aquifers. Since all of the easy sources have already been exploited, fossil fuels are harder and therefore more expensive to find and extract today that in the past. BP’s Deepwater Horizon blowout in the Gulf of Mexico is a clear example of the risk of pursuing what some have called “extreme energy.”  Finally, fossil fuels are causing an increase in planetary concentrations of carbon dioxide, resulting in global warming that threatens humans, the crops and water supplies we depend on, and natural habitats like never before.

You would think this is reason enough to move to sources of energy from wind and solar power.  But Brown says the reason solar and wind energy are growing in use around the world has a lot to do with the economics as well.  The cost of wind generators and solar cells are coming down, while the costs of finding and processing more fossil fuels is going up. 

Book Cover Photo courtesy of W. W, Norton & Co.

Brown notes that we are in a race with global warming trends.  “Can the world’s economies move to wind and solar fast enough to avoid crossing key thresholds that could cause climate change to spiral out of control?” he …more

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Soaking in the Salton Sea

California’s largest manmade lake, which supports an amazing array of birdlife, has a quirky allure (slideshow)

I eased my kayak off the briny shoreline separating flocks of American avocets and western sandpipers wading and feeding hurriedly in the shallows. The salty, buoyant water was silky smooth as my kayak glided southbound toward an apocalyptic desertscape of extinct volcanoes and steamy plumes spewing from boiling mud pots. 

For nine miles I followed the V-formations of migratory American white pelicans and a flock of low-flying double-crested cormorants, their wings humming in rapid flight just above the surface of the water. I reveled in the cacophony of birdlife and the geological wonders that loomed around this arid inland sea, the wake of my kayak the only blemish on the tranquil waters.

photo of kayakers on a still body of water near a large flock of wading birdsall photos by Chuck GrahamClick or tap this photo to view more as a slideshow of the Salton Sea.

Over the years the Salton Sea has transformed from a resort-like destination of the 1940s to 1960s, to an environmental conundrum. This inland saline lake in the southeast corner of the Golden State was formed between 1905 and 1907, when the Colorado River swelled and breached poorly-built levees and dikes flooding surrounding agricultural fields and what was then the Salton Sink. Almost the entire flow of the Colorado filled the Salton Basin (a remnant of prehistoric Lake Cahuilla that’s some 230 feet below sea level) for more than a year, inundating communities, farms, and the main line of the Southern Pacific Railroad.

Eventually the floodwaters created an inland oasis about 40 miles long and 13 miles wide, covering an area of about 400 square miles. Dubbed Salton Sea, the lake became a popular hangout for Hollywood celebs like the Marx Brothers, Jerry Lewis, and Frank Sinatra and was on the verge of becoming “the next Las Vegas”. Raucous crowds would line the shorelines and jetties to watch the bevy of speedboats, waterskiing jumps, and fishing tournaments on what became the largest manmade lake in California. There was a time when 400,000 boats used the manmade sea each year, and more people visited the lake than Yosemite National Park. Seaside towns like Bombay Beach and Desert Shores rose from the desert floor, and in 1959 the Salton Sea Yacht Club was built, the place …more

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